The next step for the Australian and New Zealand authorities is to create a customs union through a common external tariff and a common competition policy. New Zealand and Australia already have a common competition policy, but it is unlikely that there will be a common external tariff. [Citation required] Alexander Turnbull LibraryReference: EP/1982/4383/11-FPhotographer: Ross GiblinPermission of the Alexander Turnbull Library, National Library of New Zealand, Te Puna Matauranga o Aotearoa, must be preserved before any reuse. In the past, ANZLF has played an important role in defining the trans-Tasman agenda, particularly in the economic field, such as supporting the acceleration of the SEM initiative and promoting the concept of a “net trans-Tasman benefit”. He has a New Zealand co-chair (currently Adrian Littlewood, Executive Chef at Auckland Airport) and an Australian co-chair (Ann Sherry AO, Executive Chairman of Carnival Australia). ANTLF has working groups that have championed and designed the agenda in five sectors: innovation, infrastructure, tourism, health technologies and agriculture. The two main stumbling blocks in the negotiations were New Zealand`s desire to improve access to its dairy products in Australia and Australia wants New Zealand to remove export incentives and quantitative restrictions. After overcoming these two obstacles, the Heads of State and Government were signed on 14 December 1982 and came into force on 1 January of the following year. Calendar: The ERC replaced the 1965 Australian Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in New Zealand.

Discussions began in the late 1970s and a new agreement was reached in December 1982. The ERC came into force in January 1983. The Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement (CER) is a free trade agreement between the governments of New Zealand and Australia. On March 28, 1983, the treaty itself was signed only by the Australian Deputy Prime Minister and Trade Minister Lionel Bowen and the New Zealand High Commissioner for Australia, Laurie Francis, in Canberra, Australia. Based on the 1966 New Zealand-Australia Free Trade Agreement, the ERC was New Zealand`s first comprehensive bilateral trade agreement and one of the first such agreements in the world. The two main stumbling blocks in the negotiations were New Zealand`s desire to improve access to its dairy products in Australia and Australia wants New Zealand to remove export incentives and quantitative restrictions. As both obstacles were overcome in December 1983 through the Heads of Agreement, the ERC was formally signed on March 28, 1983.